Compute “Bang for Buck” on Azure and AWS – 20% to 40% advantage on AWS

If you're looking for help with C#, .NET, Azure, Architecture, or would simply value an independent opinion then please get in touch here or over on Twitter.

As I normally post from a developer perspective I thought it might be worth starting off with some additional context for this post. If you follow me on Twitter you might know that about 14 months ago I moved into a CTO role at a rapidly growing business – we’re making ever increasing use of the cloud both by migrating workloads and the introduction of new workloads. Operational cost is a significant factor in my budget. To me the cloud can be summarised as “cloud = economics + capabilities” and so if I have a similar set of capabilities (or at least capabilities that map to my needs) then reduction in compute costs has the potential to drive the choice of vendor and unlock budget I can use to grow faster.

In the last few posts I’ve been exploring the performance of ARM processors in the cloud but ultimately what matters to me is not a processor architecture but the economics it brings – how much am I paying for a given level of performance and set of characteristics.

It struck me there were some interesting differences across ARM, x86, Azure and AWS and I’ve expanded my testing and attempted here to present these findings in (hopefully) useful terms.

All tests have been run on CentOS Linux (or the AWS derivative) using the .NET 5 runtime with Apache acting as a reverse proxy to Kestrel. I’ve followed the same setup process on every VM and then run performance tests directly against their public IP using loader.io all within the USA.

I’ve run two workloads:

  1. Generate a Mandelbrot – this is computationally heavy with no asynchronous yield points.
  2. A test that simulates handing off asynchronously to remote resources. I’ve included a small degree of randomness in this.

At the bottom of the post is a table containing the full set of tests I’ve run on the many different VM types available. I’m going to focus on some of the more interesting scenarios here.

Computational Workload

2 Core Tests

For these tests I picked what on AWS is a mid range machine and on Azure the entry level D series machine:

AWS (ARM): t4g.large – a 2 core VM with 8GiB of RAM and costing $0.06720 per hour
AWS (x86): t3.large – a 2 core VM with 8GiB of RAM and costing $0.08320 per hour
Azure (x86): D2s v4 – a 2 core VM with 8GiB of RAM and costing $0.11100 per hour

On these machines I then ran the workloads with different numbers of clients per seconds and measured their response times and the failure rate (failure being categorised as a response of > 10 seconds):

Both Intel VMs generated too many errors at the 25 client per second rate and the load tester aborted.

Its clear from these results that the ARM VM running on AWS has a significant bang for buck advantage – its more performant than the Intel machines and is 20% cheaper than the AWS Intel machine and 40% cheaper than the Azure machine.

Interestingly the Intel machine on AWS lags behind the Intel machine on Azure particularly when stressed. It is however around 20% cheaper and it feels as if performance between the Intel machines is largely on the same economic path (the AWS machine is slightly ahead if you normalise the numbers).

4 Core Tests

I wanted to understand what a greater number of cores would do for performance – in theory it should let me scale past the 20 client per second level of the smaller instances. Having concluded that ARM represented the best value for money for this workload on AWS I didn’t do an x86 test on AWS. I used:

AWS: t4g.xlarge (ARM) – a 4 core VM with 16GiB of RAM and costing $0.13440 per hour
Azure: D4s_v4 – a 4 core VM with 16GiB of RAM and costing $0.22200 per hour

I then ran the workloads with different numbers of clients per seconds and measured their response times and the failure rate (failure being categorised as a response of > 10 seconds):

The Azure instance failed the 55 client per second rate – it had so many responses above 10 seconds in duration that the load test tool aborted the test.

Its clear from these graphs that the ARM VM running on AWS outperforms Azure both in terms of response time and massively in terms of bang for buck – its nearly half the price of the corresponding Azure VM.

Starter Workloads

One of the nice things about AWS and Azure is they offer very cheap VMs. The Azure VMs are burstable (and there is some complexity here with banked credits) which makes them hard to measure but as we saw in a previous post the ARM machines perform very well at this level.

The three machines used are:

AWS (ARM): t4g.micro, 2 core, 1GiB of RAM costing $0.00840 per hour
Azure (x86): B1S, 1 core, 1GiB of RAM costing $0.00690 per hour
AWS (x86): t3.micro, 2 core, 1 GiB of RAM costing $0.00840 per hour

Its an easy victory for ARM on AWS here – its performant, cheap and predictable. The B1S instance on Azure couldn’t handle 15 or 20 clients per second at all but may be worth consideration if its bursting system works for you.

Simulated Async Workload

2 Core Tests

For these tests I used the same configurations as in the computational workload.

Their is less to separate the processors and vendors with a less computationally intensive workload. Interestingly the AWS machines have a less stable response time with more > 10 second response times but, in the case of the ARM chip, it does this while holding a lower average response time while under load.

Its worth noting that the ARM VM is doing this at 40% of the cost of the Azure VM and so I would argue again represents the best bang for buck. The AWS x86 VM is 20% cheaper than the Azure equivelant – if you can live with the extra “chop” that may still be worth it or you can use that saving to purchase a bigger tier unit.

4 Core Tests

For these tests I used the same virtual machines as for the computational workload:

There is little to separate the two VMs until they come under heavy load at which point we see mixed results – I would argue the ARM VM suffers more as it becomes much more spiky with no consistent benefit in average response time.

However in terms of bang for buck – this ARM VM is nearly half the price of the Azure VM. There’s no contest. I could put two of these behind a load balancer for nearly the same cost.

Starter Workloads

For these tests I used the same virtual machines as for the computational workload:

Its a pretty even game here until we hit the 100 client per second range at which point the AWS VMs begin to outperform the Azure VM though at the 200 client per second range at the expense of more long response times.

Conclusions

Given the results, at least with these workloads, its hard not to conclude that AWS currently offers significantly greater bang for buck than Azure for compute. Particularly with their use of ARM processors AWS seem to have taken a big leap ahead in terms of value for money for which, at the moment, Azure doesn’t look to have any response.

Perhaps tailoring Azure VMs to your specific workloads may get you more mileage.

I’ve tried to measure raw compute here in the simplest way I can – I’d stress that if you use more managed services you may see a different story (though ultimately its all running on the same infrastructure so my suspicion is not). And as always, particularly if you’re considering a switch of vendor, I’d recommend running and measuring representative workloads.

Full Results

TestVendorInstanceClients per secondMinMaxAverageSuccessful ResponsesTimeouts> 10 secondsPrice per hour
MandelbrotAzureA2_V2 (x64)29179279346000.0%$0.10600
MandelbrotAzureA2_V2 (x64)51263664939755600.0%$0.10600
MandelbrotAzureA2_V2 (x64)101205102037985342138.2%$0.10600
MandelbrotAzureA2_V2 (x64)15ERROR RATE TOO HIGH#DIV/0!$0.10600
MandelbrotAzureA2_V2 (x64)20ERROR RATE TOO HIGH#DIV/0!$0.10600
AsyncAzureA2_V2 (x64)2017334325260000.0%$0.10600
AsyncAzureA2_V2 (x64)50196504274149800.0%$0.10600
AsyncAzureA2_V2 (x64)10023942402484179400.0%$0.10600
AsyncAzureA2_V2 (x64)20042389295475172500.0%$0.10600
MandelbrotAzureB1S (x86)2670255111715700.0%$0.00690
MandelbrotAzureB1S (x86)51612552132527200.0%$0.00690
MandelbrotAzureB1S (x86)1012591000171157222.7%$0.00690
MandelbrotAzureB1S (x86)15ERROR RATE TOO HIGH$0.00690
AsyncAzureB1S (x64)2020638326858000.0%$0.00690
MandelbrotAzureB1S (x86)20ERROR RATE TOO HIGH$0.00690
AsyncAzureB1S (x64)50209436278149800.0%$0.00690
AsyncAzureB1S (x64)10029231511892225200.0%$0.00690
AsyncAzureB1S (x64)20048277084474213600.0%$0.00690
MandelbrotAzureD1 v2 (x64)27488287876000.0%$0.08780
MandelbrotAzureD1 v2 (x64)52858424236467000.0%$0.08780
MandelbrotAzureD1 v2 (x64)1011921000175235758.1%$0.08780
MandelbrotAzureD1 v2 (x64)15ERROR RATE TOO HIGH$0.08780
MandelbrotAzureD1 v2 (x64)20ERROR RATE TOO HIGH$0.08780
AsyncAzureD1 v2 (x64)20$0.08780
AsyncAzureD1 v2 (x64)50168407244149900.0%$0.08780
AsyncAzureD1 v2 (x64)10024133981986215600.0%$0.08780
AsyncAzureD1 v2 (x64)20040791714927195100.0%$0.08780
MandelbrotAzureD2as_v425596045666000.0%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2as_v455872606159613300.0%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2as_v41013055920354113400.0%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2as_v41513589607559612600.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2as_v42020030523960000.0%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2as_v4206381237974351043324.1%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2as_v4251459102938850587054.7%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2as_v450200312238149800.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2as_v4100202347247300000.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2as_v420029541292053427600.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2as_v43003291126931904334230.5%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2as_v440033817305397842472054.6%$0.11100
MandelbrotAWSt2.micro (x86)2675114010105800.0%$0.01160
MandelbrotAWSt2.micro (x86)5651532433327200.0%$0.01160
MandelbrotAWSt2.micro (x86)10186710193699956812.5%$0.01160
MandelbrotAWSt2.micro (x86)151445102039458324457.9%$0.01160
AsyncAWSt2.micro (x64)2024241229860000.0%$0.01160
MandelbrotAWSt2.micro (x86)201486102068895114078.4%$0.01160
AsyncAWSt2.micro (x64)50241545312149700.0%$0.01160
AsyncAWSt2.micro (x64)10024498292260198900.0%$0.01160
AsyncAWSt2.micro (x64)200347173753858211825210.6%$0.01160
MandelbrotAWSt3.micro (x86)27018857446000.0%$0.01040
MandelbrotAWSt3.micro (x86)58783313206910800.0%$0.01040
MandelbrotAWSt3.micro (x86)108558037449810300.0%$0.01040
MandelbrotAWSt3.micro (x86)159731020269308499.7%$0.01040
AsyncAWSt3.micro (x64)2023340227960000.0%$0.01160
MandelbrotAWSt3.micro (x86)201030102158495743532.1%$0.01040
AsyncAWSt3.micro (x64)502354912407149800.0%$0.01160
AsyncAWSt3.micro (x64)100235545292299400.0%$0.01160
AsyncAWSt3.micro (x64)20023417376259830892607.8%$0.01160
MandelbrotAWSt4g.large (ARM)26327796546000.0%$0.06720
MandelbrotAWSt4g.large (ARM)56982436175313700.0%$0.06720
MandelbrotAWSt4g.large (ARM)1019366284368213700.0%$0.06720
MandelbrotAWSt4g.large (ARM)1521209927562413300.0%$0.06720
MandelbrotAWSt4g.large (ARM)208651020774721003123.7%$0.06720
MandelbrotAWSt4g.large (ARM)25757102078432568058.8%$0.06720
AsyncAWSt4g.large (ARM)2023439828059900.0%$0.06720
AsyncAWSt4g.large (ARM)50229395275149800.0%$0.06720
AsyncAWSt4g.large (ARM)100236426287299200.0%$0.06720
AsyncAWSt4g.large (ARM)20031617359208040262606.1%$0.06720
AsyncAWSt4g.large (ARM)300241173813322306063917.3%$0.06720
AsyncAWSt4g.large (ARM)4003491312733464038108821.2%$0.06720
MandelbrotAWSt4g.micro (ARM)26187516386000.0%$0.00840
MandelbrotAWSt4g.micro (ARM)57652794170913200.0%$0.00840
MandelbrotAWSt4g.micro (ARM)107616958388213000.0%$0.00840
MandelbrotAWSt4g.micro (ARM)1575910203570412710.8%$0.00840
AsyncAWSt4g.micro (ARM)2023637127560000.0%$0.00840
MandelbrotAWSt4g.micro (ARM)208021020774591191410.5%$0.00840
AsyncAWSt4g.micro (ARM)502224178373149800.0%$0.00840
AsyncAWSt4g.micro (ARM)100231414286299400.0%$0.00840
AsyncAWSt4g.micro (ARM)20031017388202839952004.8%$0.00840
AsyncAzureD4s_v42016723920060000.0%$0.22200
AsyncAzureD4s_v450165242197149900.0%$0.22200
AsyncAzureD4s_v4100153243198300000.0%$0.22200
AsyncAzureD4s_v4200165270204600000.0%$0.22200
AsyncAzureD4s_v430020899621395790000.0%$0.22200
AsyncAzureD4s_v440021116283204976951141.5%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v423043343136000.0%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v4541567550015000.0%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v41048834501670238800.0%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v4154864371301225600.0%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v4207276572402723900.0%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v42514538024512723500.0%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v4308869282598823800.0%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v435613100056850196198.8%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v4401817133527905215146.1%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v44524121020786392044116.7%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v4507471020789538015866.4%$0.22200
MandelbrotAzureD4s_v455ERROR RATE TOO HIGH
MandelbrotAzureD2s v424594824696000.0%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2s v458833449176412300.0%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2s v4104806747405312300.0%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2s v41548310202628611810.8%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2s v420506102067636862824.6%$0.11100
MandelbrotAzureD2s v425ERROR RATE TOO HIGH$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2s v42016827020658000.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2s v450164266205149900.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2s v4100167310217300000.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2s v420025938182233399000.0%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2s v43002491560335923808120.3%$0.11100
AsyncAzureD2s v440033016811434139142034.9%$0.11100
MandelbrotAWSt3.large (x86)27118787536000.0%$0.08320
MandelbrotAWSt3.large (x86)57583150202411300.0%$0.08320
MandelbrotAWSt3.large (x86)1010237656439311500.0%$0.08320
MandelbrotAWSt3.large (x86)15234010202661510443.7%$0.08320
MandelbrotAWSt3.large (x86)202453104068479475453.5%$0.08320
MandelbrotAWSt3.large (x86)25ERROR RATE TOO HIGH$0.08320
AsyncAWSt3.large (x86)2023438028060000.0%$0.08320
AsyncAWSt3.large (x86)50230386276144800.0%$0.08320
AsyncAWSt3.large (x86)100235424287299000.0%$0.08320
AsyncAWSt3.large (x86)20023717373280830262708.2%$0.08320
AsyncAWSt3.large (x86)300230173823358312760316.2%$0.08320
AsyncAWSt3.large (x86)4005511312734513664108822.9%$0.08320
AsyncAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)2023138427459900.0%$0.13440
AsyncAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)50221380273149800.0%$0.13440
AsyncAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)100221382273299500.0%$0.13440
AsyncAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)200222395276600000.0%$0.13440
AsyncAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)300266102097068699560.6%$0.13440
AsyncAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)4002581110619537793108812.3%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)26337796466000.0%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)5581111573715000.0%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)106134203154026400.0%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)1510796666270826400.0%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)2011786820372327200.0%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)257518171442526400.0%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)3067710231555526562.2%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)35687102456356239259.5%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)40895103347353229228.8%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)4510411020780441995321.0%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)5012361020686241737630.5%$0.13440
MandelbrotAWSt4g.xlarge (ARM)55119310206917910516160.5%$0.13440

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